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Full text of "FM 17-76 Crew Drill and Service of the Piece Medium Tank, M4 Series (105-mm Howitzer)"

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UNCLASSIFIED 





WAR DEPARTMENT FIELD MANUAL 



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SERVICE OF THE PIECE 
MEDIUM TANK, M4 

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WAR DEPARTMENT • 15 SEPTEMBER 1944 

" • UNCLASSIFIED 



WAR DEPARTMENT FIELD MANUAL 
EM 17 — 76 



CREW DRILL AND 
SERVICE OF THE PIECE 
MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES 

(105-MM HOWITZER) 




WAR DEPARTMENT — 15 SEPTEMBER 1944 



DISSEMINATION OF RESTRICTED MA 7T£R.— The Infer- 
motion contained in restricted documents and the essential characteristics 
of restricted material may bt given to any person known to be in the 
service of the United States and to persons of undoubted loyalty and 
discretion who are cooperating in Government work, but will not be 
communicated to the public or to the press except by authorized military 
public relations agencies. (See also par. 236, AR 380-5, 1 5 Mar 1 944.) 




United States Government Printing Office 
Washington 1944 



WAR DEPARTMENT 
Washington 25, D.C. 15 September 1944 

FM 17—76, Crew Drill and Service of the Piece 
Medium Tank, M4 Series (105-mm Howitzer), is pub- 
lished for the information and guidance of all con- 
cerned. 

[A.G. 300.7 (15 September 1944)] ' 

By Order of the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official: 
J. A. ULIO, 
Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 

Distribution: 

D 17 (10); R 17(5); I Bn7 (25), 17 (30) 
Interested Battalions 
7 T/O & E 7-25 
17 T/O & E 17-25 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Paragraphs Page 

SECTION I. General 1,2 1 

II. Crew Composition and 

Formations 3, 4 2 

III. Crew Control 5,6 4 

IV. Crew Drill 7-12 11 

V. Service of the Piece 13-16 19 

VI. Mounted Action 17-22 27 

VII. Dismounted Action 23-29 36 

VIII. Evacuation of Wounded 

from Tanks . 30-32 49 

IX. Inspections and 

Maintenance 33-43 53 

X. Destruction of Equipment 44-50 97 



CREW DRILL AND 
SERVICE OF THE PIECE 
MEDIUM TANK, M4 SERIES* 

(105-MM HOWITZER) 



Section I 
GENERAL 



1. PURPOSE AND SCOPE. This manual is designed 
to present instructional material for the platoon leader 
and tank commander in training the members of the 
crew of the medium tank with 105-mm howitzer for 
combat. It is to be used as a guide to achieve orderly, 
disciplined, efficient execution of mounted and dis- 
mounted action, and precision, accuracy, and speed 
in the service of the piece. It provides a logical and 
thorough routine for all inspections of the vehicle and 
its equipment. 

2. REFERENCES. See FM 21-6, FM 21-7, and 
FM 21-8. 



* For military terms not defined in this manual see FM 20—205. 



l 



Section II 



CREW COMPOSITION 
AND FORMATIONS 



3. COMPOSITION. The medium tank crew is com- 
posed of five members: 

Tank commander (LIEUTENANT or 

SERGEANT) 

Gunner (GUNNER) 

Bow Gunner (assistant 
driver (radio operator in 
tanks equipped with 

SCR-506)) •_ (BOG) 

Tank driver (DRIVER) 

Cannoneer (loader and 
assistant gunner) (tends 
. voice radio) (LOADER) 

4. FORMATIONS, a. Dismounted posts. The crew 
forms in one rank. The tank commander takes post 
two yards in front of the right track, facing the front. 
The gunner, bow gunner, driver, and cannoneer, in 
order, take posts on the left of the tank commander 
at close interval. 

b. Mounted posts. The crew forms mounted as 
follows: 

(1) Tank commander. In the turret, standing on the 
floor, or sitting or standing on the rear turret seat. 

(2) Gunner. On the gunner's seat, on the right of 
the gun. 



2 



(3) Bow gunner. In the bow gunner's seat. 

(4) Driver. In the driver's seat. 

(5) Cannoneer. Standing in the turret, or sitting on 
the cannoneer's seat at the left of the gun. 



3 



Section III 



CREW 
CONTROL 



5. OPERATION OF INTERPHONE AND RADIO. 

a. The crew must practice continually with the inter- 
phone to obtain its maximum value during combat. 
It will be used for tank control during operation of the 
vehicle, radio operation being interrupted during that 
time. 

(1) Helmets and microphones should be worn at all 
times during crew drill. As standard operating pro- 
cedure, after mounting, headsets and microphones, 
are tested according to the following procedure: 

(a) Cannoneer. 1. Turns OFF-ON switch of radio 
receiver to ON. (See TM 11-600 for operation of radio 
and interphone.) 

2. Turns OFF-ON switch of transmitter (SCR-508, 
SCR-528) to ON. (Allow 30 seconds for tubes to warm.) 

3. Pushes button of the assigned channel number 
until it locks. 

(b) Crew members. Each crew member inserts the 
plug of the short cord, extending from his earphones, 
into the breakaway plug of the headset extension cord 
of his interphone control box. The microphone -is 
fastened securely in its proper position on the throat 
or lip to produce maximum clarity of transmission. 
The microphone is connected to the breakaway plug 
on the microphone cord of the control box. 

(c) Commander. 1. The tank commander depresses 
the switch on his microphone cord, and orders, 



4 



Figure 1. Medium tank, M4 {105-mm howitzer)— front view. 

CHECK INTERPHONE. (NOTE: This command is 
used when the crew mounts by any other method than 
the drills given in paragraph 8 or 24. In those drills 
the "Ready" report constitutes the interphone check.) 
Each member of the crew in the following order: 
gunner, bow gunner, driver, cannoneer, throws his 
radio-interphone switch to INT, depresses his micro- 
phone switch and reports: ROG CHECK, LOADER 
CHECK, etc. Upon completion of his report, he im- 
mediately returns his switch to RADIO. During this 
procedure, each crew member adjusts the volume 
control on his interphone control box to the desired 
level. Care must be taken that the microphone switch 
does not remain in the locked position. Likewise, the 
electric cords and the suspension strap must not be 



5 



wrapped around the hand switch lest they press down 
on the switch button and cause the dyriamotor to burn 
out. 

2. Upon completion of the interphone check at the 
end of the Before Operation Inspection, or during 
combat at the last opportunity before the imposition 
of radio silence, the tank commander tests the opera- 
tion of the tank radio within the net. To do this he 
turns his radio-interphone switch to RADIO and 
either waits for the platoon net to be opened by the 
NCS or, if the net is open, reports that the Before 
Operation Inspection is complete. 

(2) Control box positions. Interphone control box 
positions are as follows: 

(a) Driver. On blower bracket above transmission. 




(b) Bow gunner. On blower bracket above trans- 
mission. 

(c) Gunner. On right wall of turret to his right. 

(d) Tank commander. On right wall of turret next 
to gunner's control box. He controls his transmission 
by manipulating the switch on his control box, marked 
RADIO-INT, to the type of transmission desired. 

(e) Cannoneer. On left wall of turret to his rear 
beside the radio. 

(3) Switches. The RADIO-INT switches on all con- 
trol boxes, except the tank commander's, must be set 
on RADIO. This is the normal position for interphone 
operation. The tank commander's switch will be set at 
INT most of the time; he will change it to RADIO 
only as he desires radio communication. Except in an 
emergency, no one but the tank commander may oper- 
ate the RADIO-INT switch on his control box. In an 
emergency, a member of the tank crew may com- 
municate with the tank commander or another crew 
member by throwing his control box switch to INT; 
but this action will interrupt the tank commander's 
radio reception. It is the duty of the tank commander 
to monitor his radio receiver at all times except when 
speaking over the interphone or transmitting over the 
radio. 

b. First echelon radio check. As a part of the daily 
Before Operation Inspection the tank commander will 
make the following first echelon radio check: 

(1) Cords, (a) See that insulation and plugs are 
dry, unbroken, clean, and making good contact. 

(b) Arrange loose cordage to prevent its entangling 
personnel or equipment. 

(2) Antenna. See that- 

(a) Mast is complete, held securely by lock screw 
on mast base, and sections are tight and taped. 



7 



(b) Leads at transmitter, receiver, and mast base 
are intact, properly insulated, and tightly connected. 

(c) Mast base is clean, tight, and not cracked. 

(d) Insulators passing through armor plate and 
bulkheads are whole and in place. 

(3) Set mountings, snaps, snubhers, etc. Check for 
security and condition. 

(4) Microphones, headsets, and controls. Check for 
condition and proper position. Replace from spares if 
necessary and turn in defective items for repair or re- 
placement. 

(5) Spare antenna sections. See that they are cor- 
rectly placed in the roll and stowed to avoid being 
damaged or interfering with personnel. 

(6) Ground lead. Check connection at both ends. 

(7) Tubes. See that spare tubes are sealed in con- 
tainers bearing date of last test. Turn in defective 
tubes at the earliest opportunity. 

(8) Fuses. Check condition, and spare supply for 
numbers and proper rating. 

(9) Cleanliness. See that both radio and equipment 
are clean. 

(10) Battery voltage. Have driver check battery 
voltage. If it is low, warn cannoneer to start auxiliary 
generator (have this started whenever radio is oper- 
ated continuously and tank engine is not running). 

(11) Crystals. Check for number, position and fre- 
quency. Be sure required crystals are present. 

c. It is the duty of each man invariably to check his 
personal interphone equipment upon mounting the 
tank; he should see that it is properly maintained, and 
report any difficulties to the tank commander. 

d. Definite tank control, commands, and termin- 
ology are set forth in paragraph 6. The desirability 



S 



and necessity of adhering to this specific language 
cannot be overemphasized. General conversation on 
the interphone causes misunderstanding and disorder 
and is harmful to discipline. 

6. INTERPHONE LANGUAGE, a. Terms. 

Tank commander LIEUTENANT or 

SERGEANT 

Driver DRIVER 

Gunner GUNNER 

Cannoneer LOADER 

Bow gunner BOG 

Any tank TANK 

Armored car ARMORED CAR 

Any unarmored vehicle TRUCK 

Any antitank gun ANTITANK 

Infantry DOUGHS 

Machine gun MACHINE GUN 

Airplane PLANE 

b. Commands for movement of tank. 

To move forward DRIVER MOVE OUT 

To halt DRIVER STOP 

To reverse DRIVER REVERSE 

To decrease speed DRIVER SLOW 

DOWN 

To turn right 90° DRIVER CLOCK 3- 

STEADY ON 

To turn left 60° DRIVER CLOCK 10- 

STEADY ON 

To turn right (left) 180° __DRIVER CLOCK 6 

RIGHT (LEFT)- 
STEADY ON 



9 



To have driver move DRIVER MARCH ON 

toward a terrain fea- WHITE HOUSE 
ture or reference point, (HILL, DEAD TREE, 
the tank being headed ETC.) 
in proper direction. 

To follow in column DRIVER FOLLOW 

THAT TANK 
(DRIVER FOLLOW 
TANK NO. B-9) 
To follow on road or trail -DRIVER RIGHT ON 

ROAD (DRIVER 
RIGHT ON TRAIL) 

To start engine DRIVER CRANK UP 

To stop engine DRIVER CUT 

ENGINE 

To proceed in a specific —DRIVER THIRD 
gear GEAR (FIRST GEAR) 

(FOURTH GEAR) 
To proceed at same speed -DRIVER STEADY 

c. Commands for control of turret. 

To traverse turret GUNNER TRAVERSE 

LEFT (RIGHT) 

To stop turret traverse GUNNER STEADY 

ON 

d. Fire orders. See FM 17-12. 



10 



Section IV 

CREW 
DRILL 



7. DISMOUNTED DRILL, a. To form crew. Being 
dismounted, the crew takes dismounted posts at the 
command FALL IN. 

b. To break ranks. Crew being at dismounted posts, 
at the command FALL OUT, the crew breaks ranks. 
Crew members habitually fall out to the right of the 
tank. 

c. To call off. Crew being at dismounted posts, at 
the command CALL OFF, the members of the crew 
call off in turn as follows: 

(1) Tank commander "SERGEANT" (or 

"LIEUTENANT") 

(2) Gunner "GUNNER" 

(3) Bow gunner "BOG" 

(4) Driver "DRIVER" 

(5) Cannoneer "LOADER" 

d. To change designation and duties. (1) Crew be- 
ing at dismounted posts, at the command FALL OUT 
SERGEANT (GUNNER) (DRIVER)- 

(a) The man designated to fall out moves by the 
rear to the left flank position and becomes cannoneer. 

(h) The crew members on the left of the vacated 
post move smartly to the right one position and pre- 
pare to call off their new designations. 

(c) The acting tank commander starts calling off as 
soon as the crew is re-formed in line. 



11 



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18 



Section V 



SERVICE 
OF THE PIECE 



13. GENERAL, a. The crew of the howitzer consists 
of the gunner, who aims and fires the piece; the can- 
noneer, who loads the piece; and the tank command- 
er, who controls and adjusts fire. 

b. Training in service of the piece must stress 
rapidity and precision of movement and teamwork. 

14. POSITIONS OF HOWITZER CREW. Positions 
of the howitzer crew are as prescribed in paragraph 
4 b. 

15. OPERATION OF HOWITZER, a. To open the 
breech. Grasp the breech operating handle and 
squeeze the latch until it is disengaged from its catch. 
Push the breech operating handle to the rear arid 
right as far as it will go. 

b. To load. Holding a round of ammunition with 
the right hand at the base of the cartridge case and 
the left hand at the middle of the assembled round, 
insert the nose of the projectile carefully into the 
chamber to avoid striking the fuze. Remove the left 
hand and with it grasp the operating handle. Clench 
the right fist, and thrust the round home into the 
chamber. As the rim of the cartridge case engages the 
extractor, it starts the closing motion of the breech- 
block. When this motion is felt, close the breech by 
moving the operating handle to the left and forward 



19 



with the left hand. Check to see that the latch locks 
the handle in the closed position. Move the body and 
both arms to the left clear of the path of recoil, and 
signal "Ready" by tapping the gunner's left leg with 
the foot. 

c. To lay the piece. Bring the target into the field 
of the telescope by the quickest practicable method, 
under guidance of the tank commander or by use of 
the periscope. To lay for direction traverse until the 
center line of the telescope is on the center of the 
target or until the proper sight picture is obtained. 
Make the final traversing motion against the greatest 
resistance, such as might be caused by cant in the 
tank. Then move the piece until the target shows at 
the proper range indicated by its relation to the range 
lines of the reticle. Adjustment is calculated so as to 
depress the muzzle with the final motion. 

d. To fire the piece. Before firing, move the firing 
switch on the instrument panel to "ON". To fire, with 
the right heel depress the right hand firing switch 
button on the turret basket floor. If the piece fails to 
fire proceed as in paragraph 16. It may also be fired 
mechanically by depressing the firing pedal at the 
front edge of the basket floor. 

e. Safety precautions. (1) Before loading each 
round, the piece will be inspected to see that there 
is no obstruction in the bore. 

(2) The gunner must release the firing switch but- 
ton of firing pedal after firing to avoid injury to the 
cannoneer. 

(3) The gunner waits for the cannoneer's signal 
that the gun is loaded and he is clear of the recoil 
before operating the firing switch. 

(4) After firing, during range and combat practice, 
the howitzer will be inspected by an officer to see 



20 



that it is unloaded before the tank is moved or per- 
sonnel is allowed to move in front of it. 

(5) In loading the piece, care must be taken not to 
strike the fuze or primer of a shell against any solid 
object; after loading, the cannoneer must take care 
to remain clear of the path of recoil. 

(6) Stuck rounds will be removed from the bore 
only with rammer, cleaning and unloading M5, or 
with the rammer Ml, which are made for this partic- 
ular purpose. The method of removing is given in 
g and h below. 

(7) Ammunition will be cleaned and inspected be- 
fore stowing and each round will again be inspected 
before loading. 

(8) Fuzes will not be disassembled or tampered 
with in any way. 

(9) In case of a misfire, the firing switch is imme- 
diately opened before recocking. Do not touch breech 
mechanism until the firing switch has been opened. 

(10) See safety requirements of AR 750-10. 

f. To unload an unfired round. The cannoneer cups 
his hands close behind the breech to catch the base 
of the round as it emerges and to prevent it from 
slipping out and dropping to the floor. The gunner 
opens the breech slowly. (Do not attempt to open, the 
breech rapidly, or the case may become separated 
from the projectile.) He then removes the round and 
returns it to its rack. 

g. To remove a stuck projectile. If, in spite of care 
in opening the breech, the case and projectile do be- 
come separated, the projectile is fired out whenever 
possible; this is especially true in combat where un- 
necessary exposure of personnel is to be avoided. If 



21 



it must be removed without firing the piece, the 
chamber should be filled with rags to form a cushion, 
the breech closed, and the shell rammed loose as 
described in h below and removed. 

h. To unload a stuck round. When a round is stuck 
in the piece and it is either impossible or inadvisable 
to fire it out, it will be removed, except in combat, 
under the direct supervision of an officer. The breech 
being open, the cannoneer takes position to receive 
the round as it is pushed from the chamber, while the 
bow gunner or gunner dismounts and rams the round 
out. Using the rammer, cleaning and unloading M5, 
insert it in the muzzle of the gun and push it gently 
down the bore until it is seated on the ogive of the 
projectile. Exerting a steady pressure, shove the round 
clear so that it may be removed by the cannoneer. 
If the weight of several men against the staff does 
not suffice (under no circumstances will the staff be 
used to hammer against the projectile), apply leverage 
by means of a 2" x 4" piece of wood or other suitable 
object connected to the tank by a rope at one end, 
or use the rammer Ml, which provides a controlled 
and properly cushioned blow. Keep all parts of the 
body as clear as possible from the muzzle or breech 
during the operation. If this procedure fails to remove 
the round, experienced ordnance personnel should be 
called. In combat, to avoid exposing personnel to 
enemy fire, the round can sometimes be pried out by 
using the base of an empty shell case as a lever. 

16. MALFUNCTIONS. Malfunctions of the howitz- 
er may be divided into three general classes: failure 
to load, failure to fire, failure to extract. Below are 
given the causes of the principal types of failure and 
the immediate action remedy to be applied. 



22 



a. Failure to load. 

Failure Cause 

Round does not Stuck round, 
fully enter 
chamber. 



Breech does not 
close. 



Insufficient 
force in push- 
ing round 
home, to clear 
breechblock. 

Bent or under- 
sized case rim, 



Obstruction, 
dirt or fric- 
tion, in breech 
mechanism. 



Worn or broken 
extractor. 



Immediate Action 
and Remedy 

Remove round. 

Check for obstruc- 
tion in chamber. 

Check for dirty 
round, and 
clean. Check for 
"bulged" (de- 
formed) round. 
For removal of 
separated or 
stuck rounds see 
15 g and h 
above. 

Withdraw round 
and try again. 



Turn round so that 
rim engages ex- 
tractors, or use 
new round. 

Remove obstruc- 
tion or dirt from 
recess if present; 
otherwise re- 
move, disassem- 
ble, clean, and 
lubricate breech- 
block. 

Replace extractor. 



23 



b. Failure to fire. 



Failure 



Cause 



Piece does not Obstruction be- 
return to bat- tween breech 



tery. 



ring and rear 
portion of 
mount. 



Excessive fric- 
tion of tube in 
cradle bear- 
ing. 

Too much recoil 
oil. 



If piece is in 
battery: 

Action of trigger Safety on 



mechanism 
restricted. 
Blow of firing 
pin fails to 
fire round. 



"Safe" 

Defective 
round. 



Immediate Action 
and Remedy 

Drive out obstruc- 
tion, or, if nec- 
essary and jack 
is available, use 
tank jack be- 
tween breech 
ring and shoul- 
der guard brack- 
et of mount, to 
release obstruc- 
tion. 

Relubricate. Take 
to ordnance if 
condition per- 
sists. 

Remove excess oil. 



Move safety to 
"Fire". 

Recock piece and 
attempt to fire a 
second time. 

Remove round to 
determine cause 
of misfire. (AR 
750-10.) 

(See paragraph 
15 for removal 
of live rounds.) 



24 



Immediate Action 

Failure Cause and Remedy 

Weak blow on Dissassemble fir- 
primer due ing mechanism 
to: obstruc- and remove ob- 
tion, dirt or struction or dirt, 
friction in clean, relubri- 
firing mech- cate, and assem- 
anism. ble. 

Broken tip on Replace firing pin. 
firing pin. 

Broken or weak Replace firing 

firing spring. spring. 

Firing pin fails Obstruction, Disassemble, and 

to strike dirt, or fric- remove obstruc- 

primer. tion in firing tion, clean, lu- 

mechanism. bricate. 

Weak or broken Replace, 
firing spring. 

Defective fir- Replace, 
ing pin. 

Defective cock- Replace, 
ing lever. 

Defective cock- Replace, 
ing fork. 

Defective cock- Replace mechan- 

ing lugs, on ism. 
percussion 
mechanism. 

Defective sear. Replace. 



25 



c. Failure to extract. 

Failure Cause 

Breech opens, Broken extrac- 
but case is tor. 
not extracted. 

Undersized or 
bent rim. 



Immediate Actior 
and Remedy 

Pry or ram out 
empty case and 
replace extrac- 
tor. 

Pry or ram out. 



26 



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20. TO LOAD ALL WEAPONS. The howitzer is 
loaded on order. This is normally the fire order, but 
some types of action will dictate loading prior to the 
appearance of a target. Machine guns are clear until 
the command PREPARE TO FIRE, when they are 
half loaded. When the fire order is given, however, 
or if the unit is deployed for combat, all machine guns 
will be fully loaded. This does not necessarily apply 
to the antiaircraft gun, which is uncovered and half 
loaded as the tactical situation dictates. 

21. USE OF AMMUNITION, a. The order of with- 
drawing ammunition from its stowage space in the 
tank is based on the principle that some readily ac- 
cessible rounds always will be saved for emergency 
use. Other crew members will pass ammunition to the 
cannoneer if necessary to prevent his having to use 
these rounds. During combat, the position of the tur- 
ret will affect .the accessibility of the ammunition in 
various parts of the tank. In drill, however, to es- 
tablish a sound method from which commanders may 
deviate as the need arises, the following procedure 
should be adhered to: 

b. Ammunition is taken from its stowage space in 
the tank in the order: (1) Three front rows left of 
power tunnel; (2) racks beside bow gunner in right 
sponson; (3) top racks behind bow gunner. The two 
rear rows left of the power tunnel will be saved as a 
reserve for action where speed of loading is of the 
utmost importance. As. time permits, or on the com- 
mand RE-STOW AMMUNITION, rounds are moved 
from the racks beside the gunner in the right sponson 
and from the bottom racks behind the bow gunner 
to those which have been emptied in firing. 



34 



c. Upon completion of re-stowing, reports are given 
on the number of rounds remaining. For example the 
bow gunner reports, "Three smoke, six HE remaining 
in forward racks right sponson; one-two HE remaining 
right of power tunnel". The gunner reports, "Rear 
racks right sponson empty". The cannoneer reports, 
"Three smoke, three HEAT, one-nine HE remaining 
left of power tunnel". 

22. TO LOAD AMMUNITION. Ammunition for the 
howitzer will be crimped upon assembly and should 
then be loaded and stowed with great care to avoid 
striking the fuze end or the primer on a hard surface, 
burring the rotating band, or denting the case. (See 
TM 9—1900.) If time is available, each crimped round 
should be tried in the piece before stowing to see 
that it can be loaded. If for some reason rounds can- 
not be crimped, each case should be tried in the 
piece prior to assembly of the round. All rounds of 
HE will be set at FUZE DELAY at this time. Both 
howitzer and machine gun ammunition will be passed 
through the hatches as most convenient under the 
circumstances, a man being stationed on the forward 
or rear hull to relay it to those in the tank. 



35 



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44 



c. Fire in fighting compartment. The first crew 
member to discover the fire calls, TURRET (or 
HULL) FIRE. The tank is stopped and the engine 
shut off. Fire extinguishers are passed to the men 
nearest the fire, and the crew members nearest them 
help in any way possible to extinguish the fire. The 
turret is traversed if necessary. The tank commander 
supervises the work and orders the crew to dismount 
if the fire gets beyond control. 

28. ADVICE TO INSTRUCTORS, a. Disciplined and 
effective dismounted action requires long and arduous 
drill. Satisfactory results can be obtained only by 
painstaking repetition of each movement. The tech- 
nique of mounting and dismounting of all crew mem- 
bers is observed in detail by the tank and platoon 
commanders and altered, if necessary, before habits 
are formed. Once each man has found the most effi- 
cient method of mounting and dismounting, he is 
encouraged to adhere rigidly to it. 

b. Training in dismounted action is best under- 
taken in the field rather than in the tank park. Crews 
are required to dismount to fight on foot on all types 
of terrain, and under every variety of simulated com- 
bat conditions, with full loads of ammunition. Rough 
terrain complicates the problem of dismounting 
through the escape hatch, and develops ingenuity and 
physical agility not possible in tank park training. 

c. Instructors must explain and demonstrate to 
tank crews how necessary to their safety and success 
in combat is a high state of training in dismounted 
action. They must point out that skill and practice in 
use of the escape hatch will pay dividends. The crew 
keeps the escape hatch door clean and well lubricated 
so that its release is immediate and positive. Frequent 



45 



inspection of the mechanism is made by the tank 
commander to see that the locking rods are not bent. 

29. GENERAL PRECAUTIONS, a. Fire prevention. 

(1) Smoking in or on the tank is prohibited. 

(2) During fueling a crew member stands on the 
rear deck holding a fire extinguisher with the nozzle 
trained on the fuel inlet, ready to use it instantly if 
needed. 

(3) Use of gasoline for cleaning any part of the tank 
is prohibited. 

b. Mounting and operating tank. (1) Crew mem- 
bers mount and dismount by the front of the tank 
except during range practice. 

(2) Unnecessary contact with any part of the wea- 
pons or sighting equipment will be avoided. This in- 
cludes— 

(a) Stepping on the howitzer barrel or shield, or the 
machine guns in mounting or dismounting. 

(h) Supporting oneself by holding the tube, how- 
itzer shield, or machine guns in mounting, or dis- 
mounting. 

(c) Use of the shoulder guard as a step in entering 
or leaving the turret. 

(3) Crash helmets if available, or helmet liners are 
worn at all times inside the tank. 

(4) In operating cross country the tank commander 
warns the driver and crew when the tank approaches 
rough terrain. 

(5) Where possible the driver avoids rough or un- 
even ground which might cause injury to the tank or 
crew. 

(6) In traveling with hatches open over rough 
ground or through woods, crew members constantly 



46 



check the engagement of the cover latching mechan- 
ism and the security of covers in the open position. 

(7) The antenna is lowered to prevent contact with 
low branches or low-hanging wires, especially those 
which may carry high voltage electricity. 

(8) The tank is driven in low range when being 
moved forward in confined spaces. 

c. Park and bivouac precautions. (1) Sleeping under- 
neath, behind, or in front of tanks should be pro- 
hibited. 

(2) In moving a tank in park or bivouac- 
fa) A guide is always employed to direct the move- 
ment. 

(b) The guide's position is at least ten feet in front 
of the tank and to one side, clear of its path, in 
directing the tank either forward or back. 

(c) At night the guide is especially charged with 
seeing that the path ahead of and behind the tank is 
clear of personnel, particularly those sleeping on the 
ground. 

(d) The guide moves at a walk to avoid stumbling 
on uneven ground. 

d. Miscellaneous. (1) After machine guns are cleared 
a cleaning rod is pushed through the barrel and cham- 
ber to insure that the chamber is empty. A T-block is 
then inserted into the receiver. 

(2) Tank weapons, except the antiaircraft gun, are 
fired only when the driver's and bow gunner's hatches 
are closed. 

(3) Care will be taken, while working about a 
running engine to keep fingers and hands away from 
fans; fan belts, drive shafts, and other moving parts. 

(4) 105-mm ammunition will be securely stowed. 



47 



(5) Ammunition will not be carried on the rear 
deck. 

(6) No items of equipment will be carried on the 
rear deck in such a manner as to block the air inlet 
grilles. 

(7) There is danger of monoxide poisoning for the 
crew of a towed tank when the medium tank or a tank 
recovery vehicle mounted on tank chassis is used as 
the towing vehicle. This danger is greatest when the 
towing vehicle is powered with a radial engine, and 
when a short hitch, such as that obtained with the 
towing bar, is used. Men should be kept out of the 
towed tank wherever possible; but where this is not 
possible, frequent periodic check of the occupants of 
the towed vehicle should be made. 



48 



Section VIII 



EVACUATION OF WOUNDED 
FROM TANKS 



30. GENERAL. Wounded members of the tank crew 
will normally be removed from disabled tanks by their 
fellow crew members. The operation requires the ut- 
most speed to save the lives of those who are unhurt 
as well as of the casualty. A tank set afire by an enemy 
hit can trap its crew in a matter of seconds; and an 
enemy who has determined the range and disabled a 
tank with a direct hit will probably continue shooting 
until the vehicle burns. It is essential, therefore, that 
all crew members become extremely proficient in the 
quickest methods of removing one another from the 
tank. Speed is the primary requisite; care in handling 
will be stressed only where it has been possible to 
move the tank to cover. If the action has ceased mo- 
mentarily, or the tank has been able to disengage 
itself without hindering the accomplishment of the 
mission, the casualty is removed on the spot and then 
carried to a protected place where emergency first 
aid is administered. Otherwise the action will be con- 
tinued until such, an opportunity is presented. 

31. METHODS EMPLOYED. The methods of evac- 
uation described herewith are based on a two-man 
team, which is the largest number than can effectively 
work around a single hatch opening. In some cases a 
third man will be able to give considerable help from 
inside by placing belts around the wounded man or 
by moving him to a position where he can be grasped 



49 



from above. Speed will usually dictate that the 
casualty be grasped by portions of his clothing or by 
the arms for removal. If an arm is broken, however, 
or if there are other injuries which will be aggravated 
by such procedures and if time allows, some form of 
sling may be improvised which will relieve the part 
from further injury. Only equipment which is im- 
mediately available, like pistol belts, web belts, or 
field bag straps, will be used for this purpose. Sug- 
gested uses of some of these items, as well as more 
elaborate techniques of evacuation, will be found in 
FM 17-80. 

32. DRILL. This paragraph suggests two drills which 
may be used as models for evacuating crew members 
from any position. The composition of the evacuating 
team should be changed frequently to provide prac- 
tice for all members of the crew in meeting various 
emergencies. 

a. The first member of the crew to . discover that 
another is hit and so badly wounded as to require his 
removal calls, BOG (LOADER) (SERGEANT) 
WOUNDED. If the tank is not then actively engaged 
and the tank commander decides that evacuation is 
necessary, he commands, EVACUATE BOG. The 
other crew members dismount, unless one man is 
needed to help from inside; and the two nearest the 
hatch above the wounded man go to that hatch to act 
as the evacuation crew. If the man nearest the cas- 
ualty in the tank sees that his help is needed, he stays 
inside and immediately starts to arrange a sling or 
take whatever other steps will speed the operation. 
One of the crew takes the first aid kit with him in dis- 
mounting, or it is removed at the first opportunity 
thereafter. The remaining crew member, if available, 
helps in lowering the casualty to the ground. Before 



50 



leaving the wounded man, whose position is marked 
so that he will not be run over, the tank- commander 
reports by radio that he has lost one or more men and 
gives the location where they may be found. 

b. To evacuate Bog (Driver). Tank commander com- 
mands, EVACUATE BOG. Driver or gunner unlocks 
bow gunner's hatch from inside; No. 2 opens hatch 
from outside. 



No. 1 

Kneel on inner edge of 
hatch. 

Reach into hatch and 
grasp hands of casualty, 
straightening him in 
seat if necessary. 

Cross arms over chest. 

Raise and rotate casualty 
so that he faces outward. 
Seat casualty on front rim 

of hatch; support in 

this position while No. 

2 dismounts. 
Lower trunk into arms of 

No. 2. 



Lift legs out of hatch as 
No. 2 lowers body 
along slope plate. 

Dismount. Place casualty 
. in carry position. 
Carry casualty to pro- 
tected area. 



No. 2 

Take position to the out- 
side rear of hatch. 



Grasp nearest hand when 
arms are crossed. 

Raise casualty and help 
rotate him outward. 

Help seat casualty; dis- 
mount to ground in 
front of Bog's hatch. 

Receive and support 
trunk of wounded man, 
holding i t beneath 
arms around chest. 

Lower body along slope 
plate and support until 
No. 1 can reach ground 
and assist. 

Place casualty in carry 
position. 

Help No. 1 cany lo pro- 
tected area. 



51 



c. To evacuate cannpneer 1 . Tank commander com- 
mands, EVACUATE LOADER. He dismounts to rear 
deck to act as No. 1. Gunner stays in the turret to act 
as No. 2. If time permits he traverses the turret until 
the hatch is near the center of the rear deck. 



No. 1 

Take position on rear 
deck behind turret 
hatch. 

Grasp casualty by hands. 
Raise casualty through 

hatch and seat on rear 

edge. 

Hold casualty while No. 

2 dismounts to rear 
• deck. 

Pick casualty up in arms; 
carry to rear and lay 
along back edge of 
deck. 

Help No. 2 lift trunk of 
casualty off tank; dis- 
mount. 

Lift hips and legs off 
tank. 

Carry casualty to pro- 
tected area. 



No. 2 

Raise casualty as high as 
possible in hatch open- 
ing, hplding around 

• chest. 

Help No. 1 raise casualty 
by lifting from below. 

Dismount to rear deck. 



Help No. 1 pick up casu- 
alty and carry to rear 
of tank; dismount. 

Lift upper part of body 
off tank and support 
until No. 1 arrives to 
help. 



Help carry casualty to 
protected area. 
1 Drill applicable in this form only where the casualty 
can be lifted by his arms, especially in the case of 
a big man whose shoulders are too wide for the 
hatch opening when his arms are lowered. In such 
cases the cannoneer is evacuated through the cupola 
hatch. 



52 



Section IX 



INSPECTIONS 
AND MAINTENANCE 



33. GENERAL, a. The tank commander is responsible 
for seeing that all inspections are made. He receives 
reports from the various crew members relative to 
their individual inspections, and he indicates in the 
trip ticket or other inspection report anything requir- 
ing the services of maintenance personnel. In super- 
vising first echelon maintenance he uses his discretion 
in delegating additional responsibilities to the crew 
members. 

b. Inspection covers all personal equipment and 
weapons, vehicle equipment and weapons, and me- 
chanical features of the vehicle. In combat it includes 
a check of the application of protective cream by the 
entire crew. Checks of instruments, lights, siren, track, 
suspension system, and engine performance are made 
in accordance with provisions of the appropriate 
technical manual; the driver fills in the section of the 
trip ticket covering the mechanical condition and 
equipment of the vehicle and indicates required main- 
tenance work. The trip ticket should be carefully and 
thoroughly prepared. Any irregularity noted and en- 
tered on it, which is not repaired before the tank is 
used again, should be re-entered continually until it 
has been properly taken care of. 



53 



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96 



Section X 



DESTRUCTION 
OF EQUIPMENT 



44. GENERAL, a. The destruction of materiel re- 
quires a command decision and will be undertaken 
only on authority delegated by division or higher 
commanders. Destruction is ordered only after every 
possible measure for the preservation or salvage of 
the materiel has been taken, and when in the judg- 
ment of the person exercising the authority such ac- 
tion is necessary to prevent. 

(1) Its abandonment in the combat zone. 

(2) Its capture intact by the enemy. 

(3) Its use by the enemy, if captured, against our 
own or allied troops. 

(4) Knowledge of its existence, functioning, or exact 
specifications from reaching enemy intelligence. 

b. The principles to be followed are— 

(1) Methods for the destruction of materiel subject 
to capture or abandonment in the combat zone must 
be adequate, uniform, and easily followed in the field. 

(2) Destruction must be as complete as available 
time, equipment, and personnel will permit. If 
thorough destruction of all parts cannot be com- 
pleted, the most important features of the materiel 
should be destroyed, and parts essential to the oper- 
ation or use of the materiel which cannot be easily 
duplicated, should be ruined or destroyed. The same 
essential parts must be destroyed on all like units to 



97 



prevent the enemy from constructing one complete 
unit from several damaged ones 'by "cannibalism". 

c. Crews will be trained in the prescribed methods 
of destruction, but training will not involve the actual 
destruction of materiel. 

d. (1) The methods outlined in the paragraphs be- 
low are given in order of effectiveness. If method No. 
1 cannot be used, destruction should be accomplished 
by one of the other methods in order of priority 
shown. Adhere to the sequences. 

(2) Certain methods require special tools and 
equipment, such as TNT and incendiary grenades, 
which normally may not be items of issue. The issue 
of such special tools and material, the vehicles for 
which issued, and the conditions under which de- 
struction will be effected are command decisions in 
each case, according to the tactical situation. 

45. DESTRUCTION OF HOWITZER. Remove 
sights. If evacuation is possible, carry the sights; if 
evacuation is not possible, thoroughly smash all peri- 
scopic sights and the telescope. 

a. Method No. 1. (1) Open drain plugs on recoil 
mechanism, allowing recoil fluid to drain. It is not 
necessary to wait for the recoil fluid to drain com- 
pletely before firing the howitzer as in (4) below. 

(2) Place an armed (safety pin removed) antitank 
grenade, HE, or armed (safety pin removed) antitank 
rocket in the tube about 6 inches in front of, and with 
the ogive nose end toward, the HE shell in (3) below. 

(3) Set fuze on an HE shell at "superquick", insert 
shell in the piece and close the breech. 

(4) Attach a piece of string to the howitzer firing 
linkage in such a way that it may be fired by pulling 



98 



the string. Dismount from the tank (down to the left 
rear) and fire the piece. Elapsed time: Approximately 
2 to 3 minutes. 

b. Method No. 2. Insert from three to five /2-pound 
TNT blocks in the bore near the muzzle, eight to ten 
in the chamber. Close the breechblock as far as pos- 
sible without damaging the safety fuze. Plug the 
muzzle tightly with earth to a distance of approxi- 
mately 11 inches from the muzzle. Detonate the TNT 
charges simultaneously. 

c. Method No. 3. With another gun, fire HE, HEAT 
or AP projectiles at the tube of the piece until it is 
rendered useless. 

d. Method No. 4. Insert four unfuzed M14 incen- 
diary grenades, end to end, midway in the tube at 0° 
elevation. Ignite these four grenades with a fifth 
equipped with a 15-second Bickford fuze. The metal 
from the grenades will fuse with the tube and fill the 
grooves. Elapsed time: 2 to 3 minutes. 

46. DESTRUCTION OF MACHINE GUNS. a. 
Method No. 1. (1) Caliber .30 machine gun. Field strip. 
Use barrel as a sledge. Raise cover until vertical; 
smash cover down toward front. Deform and break 
backplate; deform T-slot. Wedge lock frame, back 
down, into top of casing between top plate and ex- 
tractor cam; place chamber end of barrel over lock 
frame depressors and break off depressors. Insert 
barrel extension into back of casing, allowing the 
shank to protrude; knock off shank by striking with 
barrel from the side. Deform and crack casing by 
striking with barrel at side plate corners nearest 
feedway. Elapsed time: 2% minutes. 

(2) Caliber .50 machine gun. Field strip. Use barrel 
as a sledge. Raise cover; lay bolt in feedway; lower 



99 



cover on bolt; smash cover down over bolt. Deform 
backplate. Wedge buffer into rear of casing allowing 
depressors to protrude; break off depressors by strik- 
ing with barrel. Lay barrel extension on its side. Hold 
down with one foot, break off the shank. Deform cas- 
ing by striking side plates just back of the feedway. . 
Elapsed time: SV2 minutes. 

b. Method No. 2. Insert bullet point of complete 
round into muzzle and bend case slightly, distending 
mouth of case to permit pulling of bullet. Spill pow- 
der from case, retaining sufficient powder to cover 
the bottom of case to a depth of approximately Vb 
inch. Re-insert pulled bullet, point first, into the case 
mouth. Chamber and fire this round with the reduced 
charge; the bullet will stick in the bore. Chamber one 
complete round, lay weapon on ground, and fire with 
a 30-foot lanyard. Use the best available cover, as 
this means of destruction may be dangerous to the 
person destroying the weapon. Elapsed time: 2 to 3 
minutes. 

c. Small arms. Small arms cannot be adequately 
destroyed by firing with the bore stuck in the ground, 
with or without a bullet jammed in the muzzle. 

d. Machine gun tripod mount, caliber .30 M2. Use 
machine gun barrel as a sledge. Deform traversing 
dial. Fold rear legs, turn mount over on head, stand 
on folded rear legs, knock off traversing dial locking 
screw, pintle lock, and deform head assembly. De- 
form folded rear legs so as to prevent unfolding. 
Extend elevating screw and bend screw by striking 
with barrel; bend pintle yoke. Elapsed time: 2 
minutes. 

47. DESTRUCTION OF TANK. a. Method No. 1. (1) 

Remove and empty the portable fire extinguishers. 



100 



Smash the radio (paragraph 52). Puncture fuel tanks. 
Use fire of caliber .50 machine gun, or a cannon, or 
use a fragmentation grenade for this purpose. Place 
TNT charges as follows; 3 pounds between engine 
oil cooler and right fuel tank; 2 pounds under left 
side of transmission as far forward as possible. Insert 
tetryl nonelectric caps with at least 5 feet of safety 
fuse in each charge. Ignite the fuses and take cover. 
Elapsed time: 1 to 2 minutes, if charges are prepared 
beforehand and carried in the vehicle. 

(2) If sufficient time and materials are available, 
additional destruction of track-laying vehicles may 
be accomplished by placing a 2-pound TNT charge 
about the center of each track-laying assembly. De- 
tonate those charges in the same manner as the 
others. 

(3) If charges are prepared beforehand and carried 
in the vehicle, keep the caps and fuses separated from 
the charges until used. 

b. Method No. 2. Remove and empty the portable 
fire extinguishers. Smash the radio (paragraph 52). 
Puncture fuel tanks (see a (1) above). Fire on the 
vehicle using adjacent tanks, antitank or other artil- 
lery, or antitank rockets or grenades. Aim at engine, 
suspension, and armament in the order named. If a 
good fire is started, the vehicle may be considered 
destroyed. Elapsed time: About 5 minutes per 
vehicle. Destroy the last remaining vehicle by the 
best means available. 

48. DESTRUCTION OF AMMUNITION, a. General. 

(1) Time will not usually permit the destruction of all 
ammunition in forward combat zones. 

(2) When sufficient time and materials are avail- 
able, ammunition may be destroyed as indicated 



101 



below. At least 30 to 60 minutes may be required to 
destroy adequately the ammunition carried by com- 
bat units. 

(3) In general, the methods and safety precautions 
outlined in Chapter 4, TM 9-1900, should be fol- 
lowed whenever possible. 

b. Unpacked complete round ammunition. (1) Stack 
ammunition in small piles. (Small arms ammunition 
may be heaped.) Stack or pile most of the available 
gasoline in cans and drums around the ammunition. 
Place on pile all available inflammable material such 
as rags, scrap wood, and brush. Pour the remaining 
available gasoline over the pile. Sufficient inflam- 
mable material must be used to insure a very hot fire. 
Ignite the gasoline and take cover. 

(2) Destroy 105-mm ammunition by sympathetic 
detonation, using TNT. Stack the ammunition in two 
stacks about 3 inches apart, with fuses in each stack 
toward each other. Place TNT charges between the 
stacks. Use 1 pound of TNT per four or five rounds 
of ammunition. Detonate all charges of TNT simul- 
taneously from cover. 

c. Packed complete round ammunition. (1) Stack 
the boxed or bundled ammunition in small piles. 
Cover with all available inflammable materials, such 
as rags, scrap wood, brush, and gasoline in drums or 
cans. Pour gasoline over the pile. Ignite the gasoline 
and take cover. (Small arms ammunition must be 
broken out of the boxes or cartons before burning.) 

(2) (a) The destruction of packed complete round 
ammunition by sympathetic detonation with TNT is 
not advocated for use in forward combat zones. To 
insure satisfactory destruction involves putting TNT 
in alternate cases or bundles of ammunition, a time- 
consuming job. 



102 



(b) In rear areas or fixed installations, sympathetic 
detonation may be used to destroy large ammunition 
supplies if destruction by burning is not feasible. 
Stack the boxes, placing in alternate boxes "in each 
row sufficient TNT blocks to insure the use of 1 
pound of TNT per four to five rounds of 105-mm am- 
munition. Place the TNT blocks at the fuse end of 
the rounds. Detonate all TNT charges simultaneously. 
See FM 5-25 for details of demolition planning and 
procedure.. 

d. Miscellaneous. Grenades, antitank mines, and 
antitank rockets may be destroyed by the methods 
outlined in b and c above for complete rounds. The 
amount of TNT necessary to detonate these muni- 
tions is considered less than that required for deton- 
ating artillery shells. Fuses, boosters, detonators, and 
similar material should be destroyed by burning. 

49. FIRE CONTROL EQUIPMENT. Fire control 
equipment, including optical sights and binoculars, 
is difficult to replace. It should be the last equipment 
to be destroyed. If evacuation of personnel is made, 
all possible items of fire control equipment should 
be carried. If evacuation of personnel is not possible, 
fire control equipment must be thoroughly destroyed 
as indicated below. 

a. Firing tables, trajectory charts, slide rules and 
similar items should be thoroughly burned. 

b. All optical equipment that cannot be evacuated 
will be thoroughly smashed. 

50. RADIO EQUIPMENT, a. Books and papers. In- 
struction books, circuit and wiring diagrams, records 
of all kinds for radio equipment, code books, and 
registered documents will be destroyed by burning. 



103 



b. Radio sets. (1) Shear off all panel knobs, dials, 
etc., with an ax. Break open the set compartment by 
smashing in the panel face, then knock off the top, 
bottom, and sides. The object is to destroy the panel 
and expose the chassis. On top of the chassis, strike 
all tubes and circuit elements with the ax head. On 
the under side of the chassis, if it can be reached, use 
the ax to shear or tear off wires and small circuit 
units. Break sockets and cut unit and circuit wires. 
Smash or cut tubes, coils, crystal holders, micro- 
phones, earphones, and batteries. Break mast sec- 
tions and break mast base at the insulator. 

(2) When possible, pile up smashed equipment, 
pour on gas or oil, nad set it on fire. If other inflam- 
mable material, such as wood, is available, use it to 
increase the fire. Bury smashed parts. 



104 



INDEX 



Paragraphs 

Abandon tank 25 

Action: 

Dismounted (Section VII) 23-29 

Mounted (Section VI) 17-22 

Advice to instructors 28 

After operation maintenance - _ 37, 42 

Ammunition: 

Destruction 48 

Expenditure record 18 

Expenditure report 18 

Handling in tank 15, 18 

Inspection before firing 15, 16, 17 

Loading tank 22 

Report of rounds remaining 21 

To re-stow 21 

Use 21 

Auxiliary generator: 

Operate N 38 

Start 34,39 

Book, gun 34,39 

Breech: 

Close 15 

Open 15 

Crew: 

Composition 3 

Control (Section III) 5, 6 

Drill (Section IV) '_ 7-12 

Formation 4 

To dismount 10, 11 

To form 7 

To mount 8 

Destroy tank 26 

Destruction of equipment 

(Section XI) 44-50 

Fire control equipment 49 



Pages 
41 

36 
27 
45 
70, 92 

101 

31 
32 . 
19, 31 
20, 22, 27 
35 
35 
34 
34 

73 
58, 80 
63, 85 

19 
19 



2 

4,9 
11 
2 
16 
11 
12 
42 



15 



97 
103 



105 



Paragraphs Pages 



Destruction of equipment (cont) 



Tank 


47 


100 


Weapons 


45, 46 


98, 99 


Disable weapons 


25 


41 


Dismounted action 






(Section VII) 


23-29 


36 


To mount from 


24 


39 


Dismounting: 






Tank crew 


10 


15 


Through escape hatch 


11 


16 


Training in the field 


28 


45 


Driver's report 


33 


53 


Duties in firing 


18 


29 


Escape hatch: 






Dismount through 


11 


16 


Inspection of 


28 


45 


Hi VdCLl«LltJll Ul WUUHUcU llUlll 






tanks (Section VIII) 


30-32 


4Q 


Hi AJJCIIUJLUI G Ul tHIlUIUILiLlUIl _ 




oi 




27 




p irp rrinfrnl fniiirimftil - 

X 11 G LUllll G^Ul^llllCIlLj 






npstrnpHori 


49 






97 








OU, oU 


Checking hand (Phase C) 


<1A <5Q 


01 on 
01, OZ 




1 7 


Zl 


Firing: 








1 ft 
lo 


or* 

29 




ID 




r irsf PPnplnn rtiriifi /^npr > V 


K 

o 






A 

4 


2 






ft^ fit? 

Do, OO 


Hatches: 






Close and open _ 


9 


13 


Dismount through escape „ 


11 


16 


Howitzer crew: 






Composition _ 


13 


19 


Positions _ 


4 


2 



106 



Paragraphs 



Pages 



Howitzer, tank: 



Destruction 


45 


98 


Firing _ _ _ 


15 


19 


Inspections (Section IX) 


33-43 


53 


Laying 


15 


20 


Loading _ 


15 


19 


Operation 


15 


19 


Remedies for malfunctions 


16 


22 


Unloading - _ 


15 


21 


Inspections and maintenance 






1 Spptinn T5C ) 


33-43 


53 


After operation maintenance 


37,42 


70, 92 


Before operation 


34, 39 


54, 75 


During operation 


35, 40 


66, 87 


Halt - - 


36,41 


66, 88 


Periodic additional services 


38, 43 


72, 93 


Radio _ 


5 


7 


Vehicle - 


33-43 


53 


Weapons _ _ __ _ 


15, 33-43 


22,53 


Interphone: 






Language 


6 


9 


Operation __ 


5 


4 


Laying gun 


15 


20 


Load all weapons 


20 


34 


Loading: 






Ammunition in tank 


22 


35 


Half (on command 






PREPARE TO FIRE) 


20 


34 


Howitzer - 


15 


19 


Maintenance after operation 


37 


70 


Monoxide poisoning in 






towed tanks 


29 


48 


Mounted action (Section VI) 


17-22 


27 


Mounting tank crew _ 


8 


12 


Muzzle covers 


17, 19, 34, 39 


27, 33, 59, 79 


Operation of howitzer 


15 


19 


Operation of interphone 






and radio _ _ 


5 


. 4 



107 



Paragraphs Pages 



Pep drill 


12 


18 


Posts: 






Dismounted 


4 


2 


Mounted 


4 


2 


Prepare to fire 


17 


27 


Radio: 






Destruction 


50 


103 


Inspection 


5, 34, 39 


7, 64, 85 


Operation 


5 


4 


Remedies for malfunctions 


16 


22 


Report of ammunition remaining 


21 


35 


Re-stow ammunition 


21 


34 


Safety precautions 


15, 29 


20, 46 


Secure guns 


19 


32 


Service of the piece 






(Section V) _ _ 


13-16 


19 


Stoppages - 


16, 18 


22, 30 


Stuck round _ 


15, 16 


■22 


Tank: 






Control 


5,6 


4,9 


Destruction _ 


47 


100 


Technique of dismounting 


10, 11,28 


15, 16, 45 


Unload: 






A stuck round 


15 


22 


The howitzer 


15 


21 


Weapons: 






Destruction 


45, 46 


98, 99 


Inspection _ 


15, 34 


20, 54 


Half load - 


17,20 


27, 34 


Load 


15, 18, 20 


27, 29, 34 


Unload 


15, 19 


21,32 



Knox 11-H-10-6-44-141C 



108